The Nanomedicine Lab logo.

The NanoTherapeutics team aims to exploit the properties of nanoparticles and their interactions with cells and tissues for the development of safe and effective medicines, using clinically-relevant disease models. Our mission is to further the progress of nanomedicine toward clinical translation, particularly in disease areas failed by conventional drugs and therapies.

NanoTherapeutics Research Projects

2D nanomaterials for enhanced cancer immunotherapies

We are investigating the application of graphene and other 2D nanomaterials for more targeted and effective cancer immunotherapies. Current immunotherapy approaches are often limited by their inability to incite effective systemic immune responses and can be associated with dose-limiting off-target immune toxicities. Using 2D nanomaterials as a delivery system we hope to provide more targeted and synchronous induction of innate and adaptive immunity to overcome these limitations.

Developing advanced local drug delivery systems for infiltrating brain tumours

We are exploring nanoparticles and their advantageous distribution in tumour tissue for the development of local drug delivery systems. For this work we focus on using advanced orthotopic cancer models and delivery systems that are the most clinically relevant for each case. The versatility of nanoparticles enables exploration of different therapeutic modalities alone or in combination (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy).

Modulating the fate and behaviour of cells in vivo

We are investigating approaches to directly modulate cell fate and behaviour in vivo for applications in regenerative medicine. In this project we utilise a gene therapy approach to directly modulate cells in situ to support the more effective repair of diseased or injured tissue.


Dr. Thomas Kisby

Senior Researcher
NanoTherapeutics Team Leader

Dr. Lorena Fernandes

Research Associate

Ms. Maria Stylianou

PhD Student

Ms. Mang Xu

PhD Student

Ms. Lydia Thompson

PhD Student

Dr. Yu Siong Ho

Research Lab Manager & Research Assistant

NanoTherapeutics PUBLICATIONS


bioRxiv, 2024,

Engineering the glioblastoma microenvironment using TLR7/8 agonist-complexed graphene oxide nanosheets

Maria Stylianou, Thomas Kisby*, Despoina Despotopoulou, Helen Parker, Alexandra Thawley, Kiana Arashvand, Neus Lozano, Andrew MacDonald, Kostas Kostarelos*


bioRxiv, 2023,

Engineering of a graphene oxide-based two-dimensional platform for immune activation and modulation

Despoina Despotopoulou, Maria Stylianou, Luis Miguel Arellano, Thomas Kisby, Neus Lozano, Kostas Kostarelos*


Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2022, 2201968

Graphene oxide nanoscale platform enhances the anti-cancer properties of bortezomib in glioblastoma models

Paul Sharp^, Maria Stylianou^, Luis Arellano, Juliana Neves, Alfredo Gravagnuolo, Abbie Dodd, Katharine Barr, Neus Lozano, Thomas Kisby*, Kostas Kostarelos*


Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 16 (8), 843-850

Reasons for success and lessons learnt from nanoscale vaccines against COVID-19

Thomas Kisby, Açelya Yilmazer & Kostas Kostarelos*


PLOS ONE, 2021, 16 (5), e0251054

Transient reprogramming of postnatal cardiomyocytes to a dedifferentiated state

Thomas Kisby, Irene de Lázaro, Maria Stylianou, Giulio Cossu, Kostas Kostarelos*


Advanced Therapeutics, 2021, 4 (1), 2000109

Deep tissue translocation of graphene oxide sheets in human glioblastoma 3D spheroids and an orthotopic xenograft model

Irene de Lázaro, Paul Sharp, Cansu Gurcan, Ahmet Ceylan, Maria Stylianou, Thomas Kisby, Yingxian Chen, Sandra Vranic, Katharine Barr, Hadiseh Taheri, Asuman Ozen, Cyrill Bussy, Acelya Yilmazer*, Kostas Kostarelos*


Advanced Therapeutics, 2020, 4 (2), 2000141

Adenoviral mediated delivery of OSKM factors induces partial reprogramming of mouse cardiac cells in vivo

Thomas Kisby, Irene de Lázaro*, Sudeshna Fisch, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Giulio Cossu, Kostas Kostarelos*




Professor Kostarelos founded in 2006 and is still acting as the Senior Editor the journal Nanomedicine (Future Medicine, London).

Nanomedicine was the first medicine-oriented journal in the field, addressing the important advances and challenges towards the clinical use of nanoscale-structured materials and devices.

Professor Kostarelos also sits on the Editorial Advisory Board of: