Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 16 (8), 843–850

Reasons for success and lessons learnt from nanoscale vaccines against COVID-19

Thomas Kisby, Açelya Yilmazer & Kostas Kostarelos*

Almost all currently used vaccines against COVID-19 consist of either non-viral or viral nanoparticles. Here we attempt to understand the reasons behind the success of such advanced nanoscale vaccine technologies compared with clinically established conventional vaccines, and the lessons to be learnt from this potentially transformative development in the adoption and acceptance of nanotechnology for medicine.