The NanoNeuro Team aims to utilise implanted graphene-based technologies (transistor arrays and stimulating electrodes) to gain a better understanding of neurological disease pathology and to offer novel therapeutic options.
The NanoNeuro Team has considerable experience with imaging modalities and in viral vector-mediated manipulation of brain cells. We aim to complement our graphene transistor recordings by genetically manipulating cells using a targeted viral approach and/or by simultaneous imaging techniques, such as widefield calcium imaging.
NanoNeuro Research Projects
Post-stroke seizures and the development of post-stroke epilepsy (PSE)
Immediately after a stroke there can be early seizures and spreading depolarisations lasting a few hours to days. It is thought that the frequency and duration of SDs in particular play a significant role in infarct size. Until now it has not been possible to record concurrently seizures and SDs in vivo chronically due to limitations in technology. We are able to do this using our novel arrays of graphene transistors and will, in collaboration with the lab of Prof Stuart Allan, chronically implant graphene transistor arrays in preclinical models of ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke to thoroughly investigate pathological neuronal activity longitudinally post-stroke. A number of people with stroke will months to years later develop epilepsy. The process of becoming epileptic is not clear although a role for neuroinflammation has been suggested. We aim to determine biomarkers (electrophysiological, imaging and blood based) for PSE and develop novel preventative therapeutics targeting neuroinflammatory pathways.
Characterisation of seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma
Seizures are almost always associated with glioblastomas. However there are few preclinical studies examining the development of epilepsy and spreading depolarisations with glioblastoma progression due in a large part to a lack of appropriate tools to study this. We are chronically implanting graphene transistor arrays to record and characterise seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma. In collaboration with Dr Tom Kisby (NanoTherapeutics Team), Prof Kostas Kostarelos and the wider Nanomedicine Lab we are evaluating in vivo treatments that target glioblastoma and recording brain activity as an additional outcome measure of successful therapy.
Brain stimulation therapy
Graphene microelectrodes can be made highly porous increasing the electrochemical surface area. They have low impedance, extremely high charge injection limit, and outstanding stability, making them suitable for brain stimulation. We are working with our collaborators on the Graphene Flagship (ICN2, INBRAIN Neuroelectronics) to develop graphene stimulating electrodes useful for closed-loop cortical stimulation in neocortical epilepsy and in neurological diseases that may benefit from deep brain stimulation therapy including temporal lobe epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.
Dr. Rob Wykes
Senior LecturerNanoNeuro Team Leader
Dr. Sam Flaherty
Dr. Ahmed Eladly
Ms. Kate Hills
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2022, 16, 900063
Impact of DC-coupled electrophysiological recordings for translational neuroscience: Case study of tracking neural dynamics in rodent models of seizures
Clinical and Translational Medicine, 2022, 12 (7), e968
The advantages of mapping slow brain potentials using DC-coupled graphene micro-transistors: Clinical and translational applications
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2022, 15, 903115
Converging mechanisms of epileptogenesis and their insight in glioblastoma
Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 1-9
Full bandwidth electrophysiology of seizures and epileptiform activity enabled by flexible graphene micro-transistor depth neural probes
NeuroImage, 2021, 238, 118243
Adiabatic dynamic causal modelling
Journal of Neural Engineering, 2021, 18 (5)
Characterization of optogenetically-induced cortical spreading depression in awake mice using graphene micro-transistor arrays
Scientific Reports, 2021, 11 (1), 5736
Genetic dissection of down syndrome-associated alterations in APP/amyloid-β biology using mouse models
2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2019, 18.3.1-18.3. 4
Neural interfaces based on flexible graphene transistors: A new tool for electrophysiology
Epilepsia 2019, 60 (7), 1293-1305
WONOEP appraisal: Network concept from an imaging perspective
Journal of Neuroscience, 2019, 39 (16), 3159-3169
Epilepsy gene therapy using an engineered potassium channel
Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2018, 11 (12), dmm036194
Semiology, clustering, periodicity and natural history of seizures in an experimental visual cortical epilepsy model
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2018, 12, 82
The Enlightened Brain: Novel imaging methods focus on epileptic networks at multiple scales
Annals of Neurology 2018, 83 (3), 636-649
Seizures and disturbed brain potassium dynamics in the leukodystrophy megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts
Neuropharmacology, 2018, 132, 108-117
Gene therapy and editing: Novel potential treatments for neuronal channelopathies
Nature Communications 2017, 8 (1), 1-11
Focal cortical seizures start as standing waves and propagate respecting homotopic connectivity
Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2016, 260, 215-220
Optogenetic approaches to treat epilepsy
Nature Reviews Neurology, 2014, 10 (5), 300-304
Gene therapy in epilepsy – is it time for clinical trials?
Epilepsia, 2013, 54 (6), 43-45
Gene therapy in status epilepticus
Science Translational Medicine, 2012, 4 (161), 161ra152
Optogenetic and potassium channel gene therapy for focal neocortical epilepsy
Neurobiology of Aging, 2012, 33 (8), 1609-1623
Changes in the physiology of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in preplaque CRND8 mice
British journal of pharmacology, 2009, 157 (7): 1215-1224
Functional evidence for the expression of P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in human lung mast cells
The Journal of Immunology, 2007, 179 (6): 4045-4052
Functional transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channels are critical for human mast cell survival
Journal of Neuroscience, 2007, 27 (19): 5236-5248
Differential regulation of endogenous N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel inactivation by Ca2+/calmodulin impacts on their ability to support exocytosis in chromaffin cells
Professor Kostarelos founded in 2006 and is still acting as the Senior Editor the journal Nanomedicine (Future Medicine, London).
Nanomedicine was the first medicine-oriented journal in the field, addressing the important advances and challenges towards the clinical use of nanoscale-structured materials and devices.
Professor Kostarelos also sits on the Editorial Advisory Board of: