The Nanomedicine Lab logo.

The NanoNeuro Team aims to utilise implanted graphene-based technologies (transistor arrays and stimulating electrodes) to gain a better understanding of neurological disease pathology and to offer novel therapeutic options.

The NanoNeuro Team has considerable experience with imaging modalities and in viral vector-mediated manipulation of brain cells. We aim to complement our graphene transistor recordings by genetically manipulating cells using a targeted viral approach and/or by simultaneous imaging techniques, such as widefield calcium imaging.

NanoNeuro Research Projects

Post-stroke seizures and the development of post-stroke epilepsy (PSE)

Immediately after a stroke there can be early seizures and spreading depolarisations lasting a few hours to days. It is thought that the frequency and duration of SDs in particular play a significant role in infarct size. Until now it has not been possible to record concurrently seizures and SDs in vivo chronically due to limitations in technology. We are able to do this using our novel arrays of graphene transistors and will, in collaboration with the lab of Prof Stuart Allan, chronically implant graphene transistor arrays in preclinical models of ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke to thoroughly investigate pathological neuronal activity longitudinally post-stroke.  A number of people with stroke will months to years later develop epilepsy. The process of becoming epileptic is not clear although a role for neuroinflammation has been suggested. We aim to determine biomarkers (electrophysiological, imaging and blood based) for PSE and develop novel preventative therapeutics targeting neuroinflammatory pathways.

Characterisation of seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma

Seizures are almost always associated with glioblastomas. However there are few preclinical studies examining the development of epilepsy and spreading depolarisations with glioblastoma progression due in a large part to a lack of appropriate tools to study this. We are chronically implanting graphene transistor arrays to record and characterise seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma. In collaboration with Dr Tom Kisby (NanoTherapeutics Team), Prof Kostas Kostarelos and the wider Nanomedicine Lab we are evaluating in vivo treatments that target glioblastoma and recording brain activity as an additional outcome measure of successful therapy.

Brain stimulation therapy

Graphene microelectrodes can be made highly porous increasing the electrochemical surface area. They have low impedance, extremely high charge injection limit, and outstanding stability, making them suitable for brain stimulation. We are working with our collaborators on the Graphene Flagship (ICN2, INBRAIN Neuroelectronics) to develop graphene stimulating electrodes useful for closed-loop cortical stimulation in neocortical epilepsy and in neurological diseases that may benefit from deep brain stimulation therapy including temporal lobe epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.


Dr. Rob Wykes

Senior Lecturer
NanoNeuro Team Leader

Dr. Sam Flaherty

Research Associate

Ms. Kate Hills

PhD Student



Epilepsia Open. 2023, 00:1–6

Drugs acting at TRPM7 channels inhibit seizure‐like activity

Aytakin Khalil, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Stjepana Kovac, Robert C. Wykes, F. David Horgen, Andrea Fleig, Matthew C. Walker


Journal of Neuroscience, 2023, 43 (5): 685-692

Indirect effects of Halorhodopsin activation: potassium redistribution, non-specific inhibition and spreading depolarisation

R Ryley Parrish, Connie Mackenzie-Gray-Scott, Tom Jackson-Taylor, Alex Grundmann, Faye McLeod, Neela K Codadu, Alexandru Călin, Hannah Alfonsa, Rob C Wykes, Juha Voipio, Andrew J Trevelyan


Methods in Molecular Biology, 2022, 2565, 13, 187-202

Membrane Capacitance Measurements of Stimulus-Evoked Exocytosis in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

Elizabeth P. Seward, Robert C. Wykes


DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms, 2022, 15 (10): dmm049703

Targeting firing rate neuronal homeostasis can prevent seizures

Fred Mulroe, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Connie Mackenzie-Gray Scott, Najat Aourz, Yuen Ngan Fan, Graham Coutts, R Ryley Parrish, Ilse Smolders, Andrew Trevelyan, Rob Wykes, Stuart Allan, Sally Freeman, Richard Baines


Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2022, 16, 900063

Impact of DC-coupled electrophysiological recordings for translational neuroscience: Case study of tracking neural dynamics in rodent models of seizures

Amirhossein Jafarian and Rob C. Wykes


Clinical and Translational Medicine, 2022, 12(7), e968

The advantages of mapping slow brain potentials using DC-coupled graphene micro-transistors: Clinical and translational applications

Robert C. Wykes, Eduard Masvidal-Codina, Anton Guimerà-Brunet and Jose. A Garrido


Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2022, 15, 903115

Converging mechanisms of epileptogenesis and their insight in glioblastoma

Kate E. Hills, Kostas Kostarelos and Robert C. Wykes


Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 1-9

Full bandwidth electrophysiology of seizures and epileptiform activity enabled by flexible graphene micro-transistor depth neural probes

Andrea Bonaccini Calia, Eduard Masvidal-Codina, Trevor Smith, Nathan Schäfer, Daman Rathore, Elisa Rodríguez-Lucas, Xavi Illa, Jose De la Cruz, Elena Del Corro, Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Damià Viana, Jessica Bousquet, Clement Hébert, Javier Martínez-Aguilar, Justin R. Sperling, Matthew Drummond, Arnab Halder, Abbie Dodd, Katharine Barr, Sinead Savage, Jordina Fornell, Jordi Sort, Christoph Guger, Rosa Villa, Kostas Kostarelos, Rob Wykes*, Anton Guimerà-Brunet*, and Jose Garrido*


NeuroImage, 2021, 238, 118243

Adiabatic dynamic causal modelling

Amirhossein Jafarian, Peter Zeidman, Rob C Wykes, Matthew Walker, Karl J Friston


Journal of Neural Engineering, 2021, 18 (5)

Characterization of optogenetically-induced cortical spreading depression in awake mice using graphene micro-transistor arrays

Eduard Masvidal Codina, Martin Smith, Daman Rathore, Yunan Gao, Xavi Illa, Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Elena Del Corro, Andrea Bonaccini, Gemma Rius, Iñigo Martin-Fernandez, Christoph Guger, Patrick Reitner, Rosa Villa, Jose A Garrido, Anton Guimera-Brunet*, Rob C Wykes*


Scientific Reports, 2021, 11 (1), 5736

Genetic dissection of down syndrome-associated alterations in APP/amyloid-β biology using mouse models

Justin L Tosh, Elena R Rhymes, Paige Mumford, Heather T Whittaker, Laura J Pulford, Sue J Noy, Karen Cleverley, Matthew C Walker, Victor L J Tybulewicz, Rob C Wykes, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Frances K Wiseman, LonDownS Consortium


2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2019, 18.3.1-18.3. 4

Neural interfaces based on flexible graphene transistors: A new tool for electrophysiology

Anton Guimerà-Brunet, Eduard Masvidal-Codina, Xavi Illa, Miguel Dasilva, Andrea Bonaccini-Calia, Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Javier Martínez-Aguilar, Jose M. De la Cruz, Ramon Garcia-Cortadella, Nathan Schaefer, Andrea Barbero, Philippe Godignon, Gemma Rius, Elena Del Corro, Jessica Bousquet, Cécile Hébert, Robert C. Wykes, Maria V. Sanchez-Vives, Rosa Villa, Jose A. Garrido


Epilepsia 2019, 60 (7), 1293-1305

WONOEP appraisal: Network concept from an imaging perspective

Robert C. Wykes, Hui Ming Khoo, Lorenzo Caciagli, Hal Blumenfeld, Peyman Golshani, Jaideep Kapur, John M. Stern, Andrea Bernasconi, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Neda Bernasconi


Journal of Neuroscience, 2019, 39 (16), 3159-3169

Epilepsy gene therapy using an engineered potassium channel

Albert Snowball, Elodie Chabrol, Robert C. Wykes, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Jonathan H. Cornford, Andreas Lieb, Michael P. Hughes, Giulia Massaro, Ahad A. Rahim, Kevan S. Hashemi, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Matthew C. Walker, Stephanie Schorge


Disease Models & Mechanisms, 2018, 11 (12), dmm036194

Semiology, clustering, periodicity and natural history of seizures in an experimental visual cortical epilepsy model

Bao-Luen Chang, Marco Leite, Albert Snowball, Andreas Lieb, Elodie Chabrol, Matthew C. Walker, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Stephanie Schorge, Robert C. Wykes*


Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 2018, 12, 82

The Enlightened Brain: Novel imaging methods focus on epileptic networks at multiple scales

L. Federico Rossi, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Robert C. Wykes*


Annals of Neurology 2018, 83 (3), 636-649

Seizures and disturbed brain potassium dynamics in the leukodystrophy megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts

Mohit Dubey, Eelke Brouwers, Eline M.C. Hamilton, Oliver Stiedl, Marianna Bugiani, Henner Koch, Maarten H.P. Kole, Ursula Boschert, Robert C. Wykes*, Huibert D. Mansvelder, Marjo S. van der Knaap, Rogier Min


Neuropharmacology, 2018, 132, 108-117

Gene therapy and editing: Novel potential treatments for neuronal channelopathies

Robert C. Wykes*, Gabriele Lignani


Nature Communications 2017, 8 (1), 1-11

Focal cortical seizures start as standing waves and propagate respecting homotopic connectivity

L. Federico Rossi, Robert C. Wykes, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Matteo Carandin


Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 2016, 260, 215-220

Optogenetic approaches to treat epilepsy

Robert C. Wykes, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Ivan Pavlov, Vincent Magloire


Nature Reviews Neurology, 2014, 10 (5), 300-304

Gene therapy in epilepsy – is it time for clinical trials?

Dimitri M. Kullmann, Stephanie Schorge, Matthew C. Walker and Robert C. Wykes


Epilepsia, 2013, 54 (6), 43-45

Gene therapy in status epilepticus

Matthew C. Walker, Stephanie Schorge, Dimitri M. Kullmann, Robert C. Wykes, Joost H. Heeroma and Laura Mantoan


Science Translational Medicine, 2012, 4 (161), 161ra152

Optogenetic and potassium channel gene therapy for focal neocortical epilepsy

Robert C. Wykes, Joost H. Heeroma, Laura Mantoan, Kaiyu Zheng, Douglas C. MacDonald, Karl Deisseroth, Kevan S. Hashemi, Matthew C. Walker, Stephanie Schorge, Dimitri M. Kullmann


Neurobiology of Aging, 2012, 33 (8), 1609-1623

Changes in the physiology of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in preplaque CRND8 mice

Robert Wykes, Abigail Kalmbach, Marina Eliava and Jack Waters


British Journal of Pharmacology, 2009, 157 (7), 1215-1224

Functional evidence for the expression of P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in human lung mast cells

Wareham, K., Vial, C., Wykes, R.C., Bradding, P. and Seward E.P.


The Journal of Immunology, 2007, 179(6), 4045-4052

Functional transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channels are critical for human mast cell survival

Rob C. E. Wykes, Moonhee Lee, S. Mark Duffy, Weidong Yang, Elizabeth P. Seward and Peter Bradding


Journal of Neuroscience, 2007, 27(19), 5236-5248

Differential regulation of endogenous N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel inactivation by Ca2+/calmodulin impacts on their ability to support exocytosis in chromaffin cells

Robert C. E. Wykes, Claudia S. Bauer, Saeed U. Khan, Jamie L. Weiss and Elizabeth P. Seward




Professor Kostarelos founded in 2006 and is still acting as the Senior Editor the journal Nanomedicine (Future Medicine, London).

Nanomedicine was the first medicine-oriented journal in the field, addressing the important advances and challenges towards the clinical use of nanoscale-structured materials and devices.

Professor Kostarelos also sits on the Editorial Advisory Board of:



The NanoNeuro Team is part of the School of Health Sciences (Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health), the Manchester Brain Inflammation Group, the Geoffrey Jefferson Brain Research Centre and the UCL Institute of Neurology