The Nanomedicine Lab logo.

The NanoNeuro Team aims to utilise implanted graphene-based technologies (transistor arrays and stimulating electrodes) to gain a better understanding of neurological disease pathology and to offer novel therapeutic options.

The NanoNeuro Team has considerable experience with imaging modalities and in viral vector-mediated manipulation of brain cells. We aim to complement our graphene transistor recordings by genetically manipulating cells using a targeted viral approach and/or by simultaneous imaging techniques, such as widefield calcium imaging.

NanoNeuro Research Projects

Post-stroke seizures and the development of post-stroke epilepsy (PSE)

Immediately after a stroke there can be early seizures and spreading depolarisations lasting a few hours to days. It is thought that the frequency and duration of SDs in particular play a significant role in infarct size. Until now it has not been possible to record concurrently seizures and SDs in vivo chronically due to limitations in technology. We are able to do this using our novel arrays of graphene transistors and will, in collaboration with the lab of Prof Stuart Allan, chronically implant graphene transistor arrays in preclinical models of ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke to thoroughly investigate pathological neuronal activity longitudinally post-stroke.  A number of people with stroke will months to years later develop epilepsy. The process of becoming epileptic is not clear although a role for neuroinflammation has been suggested. We aim to determine biomarkers (electrophysiological, imaging and blood based) for PSE and develop novel preventative therapeutics targeting neuroinflammatory pathways.

Characterisation of seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma

Seizures are almost always associated with glioblastomas. However there are few preclinical studies examining the development of epilepsy and spreading depolarisations with glioblastoma progression due in a large part to a lack of appropriate tools to study this. We are chronically implanting graphene transistor arrays to record and characterise seizures and spreading depolarisations (SDs) in rodent models of glioblastoma. In collaboration with Dr Tom Kisby (NanoTherapeutics Team), Prof Kostas Kostarelos and the wider Nanomedicine Lab we are evaluating in vivo treatments that target glioblastoma and recording brain activity as an additional outcome measure of successful therapy.

Brain stimulation therapy

Graphene microelectrodes can be made highly porous increasing the electrochemical surface area. They have low impedance, extremely high charge injection limit, and outstanding stability, making them suitable for brain stimulation. We are working with our collaborators on the Graphene Flagship (ICN2, INBRAIN Neuroelectronics) to develop graphene stimulating electrodes useful for closed-loop cortical stimulation in neocortical epilepsy and in neurological diseases that may benefit from deep brain stimulation therapy including temporal lobe epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.


Dr. Rob Wykes

Senior Lecturer
NanoNeuro Team Leader

Dr. Sam Flaherty

Research Associate

Dr. Ahmed Eladly

Research Associate

Ms. Kate Hills

PhD Student



Nature Nanotechnology, 2021, 1-9

Full bandwidth electrophysiology of seizures and epileptiform activity enabled by flexible graphene micro-transistor depth neural probes

Andrea Bonaccini Calia, Eduard Masvidal-Codina, Trevor Smith, Nathan Schäfer, Daman Rathore, Elisa Rodríguez-Lucas, Xavi Illa, Jose De la Cruz, Elena Del Corro, Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Damià Viana, Jessica Bousquet, Clement Hébert, Javier Martínez-Aguilar, Justin R. Sperling, Matthew Drummond, Arnab Halder, Abbie Dodd, Katharine Barr, Sinead Savage, Jordina Fornell, Jordi Sort, Christoph Guger, Rosa Villa, Kostas Kostarelos, Rob Wykes*, Anton Guimerà-Brunet*, and Jose Garrido*


NeuroImage, 2021, 118243

Adiabatic dynamic causal modelling

Amirhossein Jafarian, Peter Zeidman, Rob C Wykes, Matthew Walker, Karl J Friston


Journal of Neural Engineering, 2021,18, 055002

Characterization of optogenetically-induced cortical spreading depression in awake mice using graphene micro-transistor arrays

Eduard Masvidal Codina, Martin Smith, Daman Rathore, Yunan Gao, Xavi Illa, Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Elena Del Corro, Andrea Bonaccini, Gemma Rius, Iñigo Martin-Fernandez, Christoph Guger, Patrick Reitner, Rosa Villa, Jose A Garrido, Anton Guimera-Brunet*, Rob C Wykes*


Scientific Reports, 2021, 11 (1), 5736

Genetic dissection of down syndrome-associated alterations in APP/amyloid-β biology using mouse models

Justin L Tosh, Elena R Rhymes, Paige Mumford, Heather T Whittaker, Laura J Pulford, Sue J Noy, Karen Cleverley, Matthew C Walker, Victor L J Tybulewicz, Rob C Wykes, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Frances K Wiseman, LonDownS Consortium


2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2019, 18.3. 1-18.3. 4

Neural interfaces based on flexible graphene transistors: A new tool for electrophysiology

A. Guimerà-Brunet, E. Masvidal-Codina, X. Illa, M. Dasilva, A. Bonaccini-Calia, E. Prats-Alfonso, J. Martínez-Aguilar, J.M. De la Cruz, R. Garcia-Cortadella, N. Schaefer, A. Barbero, P. Godignon, G. Rius, E. Del Corro, J. Bousquet, C. Hébert, R. Wykes, M.V. Sanchez-Vives, R. Villa and J.A. Garrido


Epilepsia 2019, 60 (7): 1293-1305

Network Concept from an Imaging Perspective

Wykes RC*, Khoo HM, Caciagli L, Blumenfeld H, Golshani P, Kapur J, Mehta A, Stern J, Bernasconi A, Dedeurwaerdere S & Bernasconi N


Journal of Neuroscience, 2019, 39 (16): 3159-3169

Epilepsy gene therapy using an engineered potassium channel gene

Snowball A*, Wykes RC*, Chabrol E*, Shekh-Ahmad T*, Cornford JH, Lieb A, Hughes MP, Massaro G, Rahim AA, Hashemi KS, Walker MC, Kullmann DM, Schorge S


Disease models & mechanisms, 2018, 11 (12), dmm036194

Semiology, clustering, periodicity and natural history of seizures in an experimental visual cortical epilepsy model

Chang BL, Leite M, Snowball A, Chabrol, Leib A, Walker MC, Kullmann DM, Schorge S, Wykes RC*


Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 2018, 12, 82

The Enlightened Brain: Novel Imaging Methods Focus on Epileptic Networks at Multiple Scales

Rossi LF, Kullmann DM & Wykes RC*


Annals of neurology 2018, 83 (3), 636-649

Seizures and disturbed brain potassium dynamics in the leukodystrophy megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts

Dubey M, Brouwers E, Hamiltion EMC, Stiedl O, Bugiani M, Koch H, Wykes RC, Mansvelder HD, Van der Knaap MS & Min R


Neuropharmacology 2018, 132, 108-117

Gene therapy and editing: novel potential treatments for neuronal channelopathies

Wykes RC* & Lignani G


Nature communications 2017, 8 (1), 1-11

Focal cortical seizures start as standing waves and propagate respecting homotopic connectivity

Rossi LF, Wykes RC*, Kullmann DM & Carandini M


Journal of neuroscience methods, 2016, 260, 215-220

Optogenetic approaches to treat epilepsy (2016)

Wykes RC*, Kullmann DM, Pavlov I & Magloire V


Nature Reviews Neurology, 2014, 10 (5): 300-304

Gene therapy in epilepsy – is it time for clinical trials?

Kullmann DM, Schorge S, Walker MC & Wykes RC



Gene therapy in status epilepticus

Walker MC, Schorge S, Kullmann DM, Wykes RC, Heeroma JH & Mantoan L


Science translational medicine, 2012, 4 (161): 161ra152-161ra152

Optogenetic and potassium channel gene therapy for focal neocortical epilepsy

Wykes RC, Heeroma JH, Mantoan L, Zheng K, MacDonald DC, Deisseroth K Hashemi KS, Walker MC, Schorge S & Kullmann DM


Neurobiology of aging, 2012, 33 (8): 1609-1623

Changes in the physiology of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in preplaque CRND8 mice

Wykes R, Kalmbach A, Eliava M, Waters J


British journal of pharmacology, 2009, 157 (7): 1215-1224

Functional evidence for the expression of P2X1, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in human lung mast cells

Wareham K, Vial C, Wykes RC, Bradding P, Seward EP


The Journal of Immunology, 2007, 179 (6): 4045-4052

Functional transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channels are critical for human mast cell survival

Wykes RC, Lee M, Duffy SM, Yang W, Seward EP, Bradding P


Journal of Neuroscience, 2007, 27 (19): 5236-5248

Differential regulation of endogenous N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel inactivation by Ca2+/calmodulin impacts on their ability to support exocytosis in chromaffin cells

Wykes RC, Bauer CS, Khan SU, Weiss JL, Seward EP




Professor Kostarelos founded in 2006 and is still acting as the Senior Editor the journal Nanomedicine (Future Medicine, London).

Nanomedicine was the first medicine-oriented journal in the field, addressing the important advances and challenges towards the clinical use of nanoscale-structured materials and devices.

Professor Kostarelos also sits on the Editorial Advisory Board of:



The NanoNeuro Team is part of the School of Health Sciences (Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health), the Manchester Brain Inflammation Group, the Geoffrey Jefferson Brain Research Centre and the UCL Institute of Neurology