ACS Nano, 2024, published online

Environmental and health impacts of graphene and other two-dimensional materials: a Graphene Flagship perspective

Hazel Lin, Tina Buerki-Thurnherr, Jasreen Kaur, Peter Wick, Marco Pelin, Aurelia Tubaro, Fabio Candotto Carniel, Mauro Tretiach, Emanuel Flahaut, Daniel Iglesias, Ester Vázquez, Giada Cellot, Laura Ballerini, Valentina Castagnola, Fabio Benfenati, Andrea Armirotti, Antoine Sallustrau, Mathilde Keck, Frédéric Taran, Cyrill Bussy, Sandra Vranic, Kostas Kostarelos, Mona Connolly, José Maria Navas, Florence Mouchet, Laury Gauthier, James Baker, Blanca Suarez-Merino, Tomi Kanerva, Maurizio Prato, Bengt Fadeel*, Alberto Bianco*

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous interest ever since the isolation of atomically thin sheets of graphene in 2004 due to the unique and versatile properties of these materials. However, the increasing production and use of 2D materials necessitate a thorough evaluation of the potential impact on human health and the environment. Furthermore, harmonized test protocols are needed with which to assess the safety of 2D materials. The Graphene Flagship project (2013-2023), funded by the European Commission, addressed the identification of the possible hazard of graphene-based materials as well as emerging 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides, hexagonal boron nitride, and others. Additionally, so-called green chemistry approaches were explored to achieve the goal of a safe and sustainable production and use of this fascinating family of nanomaterials. The present review provides a compact survey of the findings and the lessons learned in the Graphene Flagship.